Since the advent of antiretroviral treatment, severe dementia among people living with HIV is relatively rare. However, about 20% of people with HIV can experience mild HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, or HAND. HAND is the umbrella term used to describe problems experienced by PLHIV regarding thinking, memory and mood.
Manifestations of HAND include cognitive slowing, reduced concentration, reduced co-ordination, confusion, forgetfulness and behavioural changes – including depression and anxiety. Modern HIV treatments can both prevent and treat HAND.
See also Mental health.